The association of periodontal disease with systemic conditions such as diabetes
Is likely related to the inflammatory response associated with periodontal disease.
Systemic hormonal changes associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes, can alter the host response to dental plaque. The rate of disease progression may be influenced by local and/or systemic conditions that alter the normal host response to bacterial plaque.
Systemic factors such as diabetes can decrease host defenses to bacterial infection.
Systemic conditions such as diabetes are associated with the aggressive form of periodontitis. Risk factors involve the duration and level of control of the diabetes. The levels of circulating CRP are significantly higher in individuals with long-term diabetes.
Inflammatory processes may have a more pronounced effect on the development of complications of Type 1 diabetes.
In Type 2 diabetes, inflammatory processes are more strongly associated with the development of the disease. Systemic markers of inflammation are found to be increased in healthy individuals who develop Type 2 diabetes later in their lives.
Insulin resistance, which is associated with Type 2 diabetes and usually procedes the development of frank diabetes, may also be affected by pre-existing systemic inflammation.